Baseball (written in English) or Baseball is an unpopular sport outside of the United States of America (despite being huge in that country that was its developer), although there are some sites where its popularity has grown immensely, as in the Far East in countries like Japan and in some countries of Central America.
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History of Baseball
It is not well known from when baseball began to appear, and there are already reports from the 14th century in some documents of games similar to current baseball.
But it was only in the year 1744 that there is some more concrete reference of Baseball in the United Kingdom, being an evolution of the game of rounders that already was played in that region, and that eventually was taken and later popularized by English immigrants in America of the North.
It was still for about 20 years, from 1992 to 2012, an Olympic sport, but as it is a sport that has little visibility outside the US, was eventually withdrawn from the program.
Fundamentals of Baseball
The main purpose of baseball is to simply hit the ball with a club, usually as far as it is possible and correctly, within the limits of the field, and run through the four bases that are in the field until reaching the last one where a point is scored.
Unlike most sports in which the duration of the game is fixed for a predetermined time, in baseball, for the game to end, at least one team has to make 27 eliminations, with rare exceptions excepted. Each entry (or inning) ends when 3 players are eliminated, so the game consists of 9 innings. If at the end of these 9 innings the teams remain tied, the team that is able to advance first in the next innings wins.
O baseball field is in the form of a square, and its position makes it appear to be a diamond (hence the name of a diamond).
This field is divided into two main parts: infield and outfield.
The infield has ground on land and is square (the diamond), having four bases, which have to be reached by the player who is attacking and each has a player to defend them.
The outfield in turn has the ground grass, being he the part after the infield to the wall and is protected by more 3 players, who are always attentive to the launches that are long and high (flyballs).
The “hill” where the pitcher sends the ball is a circle of land with a radius of 2,4 meters and the distance between bases is 120 meters, there are two lines that leave the “home plate” and that forms an angle of 90 degrees between they.
Teams and Players
These numbers range from baseball leagues, but the Major League, which is the main league baseball that exists (the main league of the United States) usually consists of 25 players each team.
These numbers are divided as follows: 8 defense players (receiver, internal and external defenders), the initial pitcher, 6 relief pitchers, one being a closer (extremely effective pitcher who plays at the end of the game when it is necessary to secure victory) , 1 reserve shooter, 2 defensive backs reserves, 2 defensive backs reserves, a hitter, receiver or extra relief and a HP (player who rebuffs by pitcher).
There is also the staff, like the manager, and their assistants who are the coaches, each having their own functions.
Positions and Field Distribution
- Pitcher / Pitcher: He is the main player of a baseball team. Its function is to throw the ball, with the intention that it is not rebounded by the player of the opposing team.
- Receiver / Catcher: Its function is to catch the balls that are thrown by the launchers, in case it is not fought by the player of the opposing team.
- First baseman / First baseman: Its function is to defend the first base to be covered and cover the plays made in it.
- Second base / Second baseman: Its function is to occupy the second base and to execute, along with the first base, a play called double play.
- Third-base / Third baseman: Its function is to occupy the third and defend it, as well as cover the plays that can be made in it.
- Interbase / shortstop: Occupies the spaces between the second and third bases. Its function is to cover the region of the second base in case of double play.
- Left Camper / Left fielder: Is a player responsible for the defense of the so-called left field.
- Central Camper / Center fielder: He is a player responsible for the defense of the so-called central field.
- Right Camper / Right fielder: Is a player responsible for the defense of the so-called right field.
- Hitter / Hitter: Is responsible for rebounding the ball thrown by the pitcher.
As has been said, the goal of the pitcher is to send the ball to the home plate following certain rules, preventing the hitter from hitting the ball, but this does not always happen as is clear.
Let’s see what situations can happen in the releases.
This is the main objective of the Pitcher. He can get the strike in several ways:
– Throw the ball in the strike zone and the hitter attempts to hit and miss (the strike zone is an imaginary square zone between the knees and the hitter’s chest);
– Throw the ball in any zone and the batter tries to rebound but fails on the ball.
– The batter sends the ball out of bounds, thus failing (backwards or in the form of lines that leave the home plate);
At the end of 3 strikes the player is considered “Strike Out ” and the player is eliminated.
When the pitcher sends the ball out of the strike zone and the batsman does not attempt to hit, it is considered ball. If the pitcher sends 4 balls to the same player, he can advance to first base.
If the first base is full, the player on the first base advances to the second base and so on.
When the pitcher makes his throw and the ball accidentally goes against the batter, it is considered Dead Ball and the player automatically goes to first base. If you are busy, the same happens as in Ball.
Ball in Game
If the player who is rebounding can hit the ball (and she stays on the field) and she hits the ground if she does not leave the field, then she can go to the first base in an attempt to steal the base.
O inning (or entrance) only ends when the team that is defending can eliminate 3 players from the opposing team. For these eliminations to happen there are several ways to do this, and they are:
A Strike Out happens when the pitcher manages to win 3 strikes over the batter and the player is eliminated. In 3º strike, if it is foul it does not count, only if it is a bunt (a play in which the player does not swing the club and only the slope against the ball).
Fly Out is when the hitter manages to hit the ball and one of the defenders is able to catch the ball without touching the ground.
When the batter hits the ball and it touches the ground the player starts to run towards the first base. If a defender manages to catch the ball and tells the defender that he is in contact with the first base and he grabs it before the batter arrives at the first base, he is eliminated.
It’s exactly the same situation as in Ground Out but instead of being on the first base with the batter is the players who are already on the first, second or third base.
It is when a defensive player who has the ball touches the opponent and he is not in contact with any base.
In a play there does not have to be only one elimination, there may be a Double Play, or a Triple Play (which is quite rare), being a junction of several eliminations.
Players who are going to rebate have their defined areas where they can be and step on to rebound, with two, one on the right side and one on the left side of the home plate, to facilitate right-handed and left-handed players.
The player can choose to do a normal swing, which is to try to make a wide swing, or a bunt, which consists of leaving the club stopped and trying to make the ball touch him, in order to send an extremely short batting through the ground, usually used as a sacrifice while another player in your team steals some base to advance in the field.
The most iconic move anyone has ever heard of even those who do not like baseball is the Home Run, which is the batter who can hit off the field, usually for the stands. Then the player who has hit and all the players on the base automatically score a run, as they can run between bases without the concern of the ball being put into play.
For some of the teams win has definitely to win races (points) and if at the end of 9 innings have more than the opponent wins. To mark these races players have to walk through the 4 bases without being eliminated, thus aiming a race each time they do so.
Players can advance on the bases in some ways:
After the pitcher begins the movement to send the ball, the player at the base can start to run to the next base, in case it is empty or his partner is running too, and try to get there before the player that is (to eliminate the player in this way, it is important that the catcher is able to make a strong and accurate pitch for the player on the base to receive the ball),
If the defenses of the opposing team make a mistake, it is also an opportunity to try to steal the bases.