Judo is a martial art that is practiced as a combat sport and was created with the purpose of serving for self-defense, joining a bit of various martial arts, such as jiu-jitsu, and creating a stronger martial art. complete.
History of Judo
In 1882, a man named Jigoro Kano, a physical education teacher at the time, created the martial art that is Judo. This creates a complete martial art that does not depend only on strength.
It was with the joining of the best of various arts that he created Judo being a single art, and to circumvent the lack of strength or dependence on it, he adapted and created techniques to use gravity or leverage systems so that the displacement of weight is aided in the execution of these movements.
And it was from there that he decided to establish norms so that his learning would be easier and if it could spread better also.
One of the biggest differences of this martial art is that not only focused on victory but also on learning and training as a person, both physically and mentally, giving another ideal to combat.
This all ended up being realized when Jigoro Kano opens its first school of Judo, call of Kodokan.
Field of Judo
The field of Judo is called a mat and is a square area, formed by thin mattresses of 2 meters long by 1 meters wide, and they fit so as to make the mat.
This must have a size between 14 meters and 16 meters total, being that it is divided by three areas:
- Combat Area: This is located in the center of the mat, measuring between 8 and 10 meters aside. This is where the judokas fight and score points. There are only two marks in this area that indicate where each one of them must begin and end the combat;
- Hazardous area: This area is marked by red color and is around the combat area, taking 1 meter wide. It is red to warn the judokas who are leaving the scoring zone and to apply the maneuver or return to the combat area;
- Security area: The security area only exists to give some clearance to the judo if they leave the combat area, measuring it 3 meters wide. Here it is no longer possible to rate.
As in most combat sports, this is also divided into weight categories so you only fight with someone with a similar weight to yours, thus being a fairer and more balanced fight.
The weight categories and their weights are:
- Extra light weight (up to 60 kg);
- Light weight (up to 66 kg);
- Lightweight (up to 73 kg);
- Average medium weight (up to 81 kg);
- Average weight (up to 90 kg);
- Medium weight (up to 100 kg);
- Heavy weight (over 100 kg);
In other combat sports it is normal to see kicks and punches but in Judo it is not so. This is a sport that aims to project the opponent on the ground and that he does not fall head-on or imprison him for as long as possible, both things being scoring.
The combat lasts for 5 minutes for the men and 4 minutes for the women. If when the time finishes the fight has not yet been decided or have tied in points then passes to the Golden Score.
The Golden Score is an extra 3 minutes that the Judokas have to fight. The first to score automatically wins.
Judo has very characteristic and unique scores, which are:
- Yukô: (the athlete falls sideways).
- Wazari: (the athlete falls on his back on the mat, but with little speed).
- Ippon: (the athlete falls perfectly backwards on the mat).
These scores are also awarded if you can immobilize the opponent, being punctuated like this:
- De 1 à 14,9 seconds, does not gain point;
- De 15 à 19.9 seconds, score a yuko;
- De 20 à 24.9 seconds, score a waza-ari;
- Then complete 25 seconds score Ippon;
From the moment one of the opponents scores an ippon, the fight ends and that person is automatically the winner.
When one of the judokas does something worthy of a penalty (or shido), the central referee stops the fight and tells the judokas to fix their Judogi (equipment / clothing) and tells them to resume the fight. The accumulation of penalties translates into points for the opponent as follows:
- 1º shido: Only a warning is given;
- 2º shido: The opponent scores a yuko;
- 3º shido: The opponent scores a waza-ari;
- 4º shido: The opponent scores a Ippon;
As in any sport, there is always who controls compliance with rules, marking points, etc. and Judo is no exception, having several Judges, each with its function.
- Central Judge: This is responsible for controlling compliance with the rules on the mat.
- Judges: There are 2 side judges, each sitting at a vertex of the combat area, both facing each other. They have as auxiliary function the central judge and if both say something and the central referee does not agree, the majority is that it wins.
- Judge: It is the tax judge who is outside the competition area.
The Judogi is a kind of kimono, which is made of cotton or other identical material and equally resistant, should not be too thick so that it does not damage the footprint of the opponent.
The equipment is also composed by the pants, which have lengths and gaps between the body and the clothes that must comply so that it is easier the practice of this sport.
They also have to have a strip, which should be twice the size of your waist, having in several colors, each represents a level of mastery. The judoka must use the color of the track that corresponds to his current level.
The colors and the number of graduations depends very much from place to place. Now we will show the graduation system of Portugal and Brazil.
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