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All about Rugby [ Rules, History, … ]

Rugby is a team sport, one of which has been gaining more fans for each time appear more variants of it.

This sport is very characterized by his physical contact, and there are people who do not like sports even though he is theoretically “very violent”.

As we said, nowadays there are several variations of this sport, there being the most well-known which is Fifteen Rugby, then comes the Rugby League which is composed of 13 players, and also has the Sevens Rugby which is composed of 7 elements, and this variant is already an Olympic sport.

Then there are a few more variations like beach rugby, touch rugby, or the underwater rugby.

History of Rugby

In a quick presentation, this sport came to England in the nineteenth century, with the story that the idea for this sport came about because a football player named William Webb Ellis took the ball with his hands and ran with it until to the bottom line.

Rugby Game and its Objectives

The 15 Rugby game consists of two teams, this having a total duration of 80 minutes, divided by two parts of 40 minutes, and the time only for in case of injury of a first line player.

The goal of the team is to score as many points as possible, winning the team with the most points at the end of the game. Most points are scored when a player can cross the opposing goal line (bottom line) and make the ball touch the ground while in contact with it.


Rugby Field

The Rugby field has a rectangular shape, being it lawn/grass, having this one being on the rules of Rugby, and has a maximum length of 144 meters by 70 meters wide.

The field is divided by several lines. It has the center line that divides the field in two, delimiting the sides of the teams and marking the middle of the field, and has the 22-meter lines that mark the place where the player can already let the ball touch the ground and try to make a try.

In the center of the bottom line of both teams are also 2 posts crossed by another to interconnect (taking the form of an H) which must be at least 5,6 meters wide and bar that interlinks them must be at least 6,4 meters off the ground.

The area above the bar between the bars is where players can kick in various situations of the game (we will explain) to score points.



  1. Ball

The rugby ball has an oval shape, having it as dimensions between 28 and 30 centimeters in length and after full with the proper pressure should make a circumference of about 75 inches.

This is usually made of leather or some type of synthetic material that is approved by the Regulation that regulates the rules of rugby.

  1. Clothes

It consists of a shirt specific to Rugby called “Shoulder Pad” which protects sensitive and sensitive areas such as shoulders, biceps, back, abdomen and shoulders (may have more or less protection depending on the model).

They also use cleats to manage to run with a good grip on the pitch, and the spikes are a little bigger than in football.

Also essential is the use of a mouthpiece made of a silicone-like material to protect your teeth from impacts. Usually, they are only with protection for the superior teeth, thus avoiding to hinder the breath.

A scrum cap can also be used, which is a kind of padded helmet that protects the head and especially the ears from impacts. It is not mandatory to use it, so most players choose not to use them.


Constitution of the Teams

Now let’s see how the team’s constitution is based on the most commonly used variant of Rugby 15. The teams are each formed by 15 field players and most often by 7 reserves.

The teams are divided into several specific positions, each number having its own specific position, and 3 is a large group: 8 Advanced, 2 Medium and 5 Defenses.

Let us now show each position, the corresponding numbers, and their functions.


These are the players with the 1 and 3 numbers and are meant to give stability in the scrum and have enough strength to lift the jumpers when it is a sideline throw.


Shirt owners #2, these only have only two functions during the game. Be the one who gets possession of the ball in the scrum and sends the ball when it is the side throw.


They wear the number shirt 4 and 5. Second-Lines are responsible for getting the ball at the start, restart and side during the game. It is also his responsibility to move forward in the scrum, ruck and mauls generating attack platforms.


Wings or Wings are the players with the number 6 and 7 and are intended to win the ball when it ends up lost on the ground, having them have some speed and physical strength suffers in the tackle to win the disputes.


He wears the 8 number shirt. The eighth must secure possession at the base of the scrum, carry the ball in the open game and provide the connection between the forwards and the three quarters in the attacking stages of defending aggressively.

Scrum Medium

He wears the 9 number shirt. He is responsible for the link between the forwards and the three-quarters in the scrums, side alignments and open play. It is the player who makes the decisions of the team. He evaluates and decides whether it is best to quickly distribute a ball to the three-quarters or keep it close to the forwards.


This is the holder of the 10 shirt, being the one that leads his team and defines how it will be the play after receiving the ball of the 9 number, being able to kick, pass or try to break the line of defense. The better and faster your decision power, the more this player will be valued.


With the shirt number 12 and 13, they are the players who play the most and are in action in the game, since both defend and attack.

In defense they are responsible for intercepting the players who are attacking and in attack they are intended to carry the ball as far as possible going in a race and breaking the force by the opponents.


These use the numbers 11 and 14 and are a bit like the central ones but they defend less, although they also have to do it, and instead of breaking the force, they try to use their speed (usually they are very fast players) to advance in the field and even try to get a test (or try).

Full Back

The last player, the 15 number, is also the last defender of the team, and he must be a player with confidence and ability to catch the balls that are kicked from a distance, to kick away in a moment of tightness and to have enough strength to make an aggressive tackle against the opponent’s forward.


Rugby Games and Moments

Each party starts with a player of the team that is starting to kick the center line to the side of the opponent of the field, with the players of the opposing team that are positioned at least 10 meters away and the ball has to go through these 10 meters the minimum
or will be considered an infringement.


– Pass

When a player has possession of the ball, he can pass freely to a team-mate, having to pass to the side or back, and never to the front.

– Knock-on

When a player who has the ball drops it and it touches the ground towards the opponent’s field or just touches it, an infraction is marked, which is punished with a scrum for the opposing team and thus possession of the ball is lost.

– Chute

This is the only way to make some kind of throw in the direction of the opposing field, being an option to pass or to run with the ball. any player of your team in front of the ball at the time of the kick is out of play until they withdraw behind the kicker.

– Off side

A player is considered to be in an offside position when he is ahead of his teammate who holds the ball or who has played last. Being on an offside is not considered an infraction, but an ineligible athlete cannot participate in any action until he returns to a game position again. If a player who is out of play takes part in the actions, he may be penalized.

– Lateral Release

A side throw is made when the ball goes out the sideline. Each team forms a line of players, and after each throw has been made, each team tries to be the one to recover the ball. The throw must be done in a straight line and the jumpers can rely on other players in order to catch the highest pitch. When they are in the air, they cannot be victims of tackle or any disturbance like pulling or jerking.

Contact Us

Since Rugby is an extreme contact sport, there are also several plays that consist of contact and are usually defensive.

– Tackle

The tackle consists of one or more players investing against the opposing player who is carrying the ball, causing him to touch with his knees on the ground, to sit or lie down, and to continue must immediately release the ball and the player who made the tackle move away so that other players can recover the ball.


– Ruck

The ruck is formed if the ball is on the ground and one or more athletes from both standing teams come into contact around the ball. In this case, players can not use their hands to handle the ball in the ruck. They must use their feet to move the ball in the ruck and may push their opponents beyond the ball so that it emerges after the last foot and can be played with the hands.

– Maul

A Maul occurs when the ball bearer is held by one or more opposing players and one or more players on his team come into contact with him. The ball must not be in contact with the ground. The team in possession of the ball may attempt to gain territory by pushing their opponents towards the opposing in-goal line. The ball may be passed back between the athletes in the maul and eventually passed to another player who is not participating in the maul, or a player may leave the maul carrying the ball and run with it.

– Scrum

The scrum is used to start the game again after an interruption of the game for a slight infraction or because it can not be continued through the ruck or maul.

Two lines of players are formed and the ball is placed in the center by a player. After launching, the Hooker of each team has as a function to try to throw the ball backward with the feet for a team-mate. Usually, who gains the possession of the ball is the team that launched the ball because Hooker and the player who threw the ball can synchronize.


There are several ways to score points and also each way gives a different number of points. Let’s see one by one now.

– Try / Essay (5 points)

A try is scored when the ball is propped against the ground in the area beyond the opponents’ in-goal line. A penalty try may be scored if a player has scored the try but was stopped by a penalty from the opponent.

– Conversion (2 points)

After a try has been scored, the team may try to make a conversion, which consists of kicking the ball and trying to make it pass between the posts and over the crossbar, the kicking location being in line with the place where the ball was made a try.

– Penalty (3 points)

The penalty can be taken if it is granted after suffering an infraction. The player has to make the normal kick between the posts and over the crossbar.

– Drop Goal (3 points)

It is when the player has the ball during the game and decides to try to kick the ball between the posts, dropping it, and after touching the ground kick.



The referees are three in total, with one referee and two line judges (equal to football).

The umpire shall be responsible for all penalties and shall make any infractions when any team commits them. He must always be the leader and control of the game.

Line judges assist the main referee, essentially telling if the ball or player has crossed the sideline and also if the ball has been inside the H.



As in many sports, Rugby also has a yellow card and a red card to sanction players who make more serious infractions.

The yellow card acts as a warning and the player is prevented from playing for 10 minutes.

The red card is applied either to an accumulation of two yellows or when the player commits a serious infraction, which in turn results in his expulsion.

More Related Articles

– Differences between Rugby and American Football

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